R. Allen, Class Structure and Inequality during the Industrial Revolution: Lessons from England's Social Tables, pp.1688-1867, 2017.

. Bian?yanjie, Chinese Social Stratification and Social Mobility, ? Annual Review of Sociology, vol.28, pp.91-116, 2002.

. Bian?yianjie, ?????????: ??????? ????M?? ??: ??· ??·???????[Market Transition and Social Stratification: American Scholars'Analysis of China, 2002.

H. Brandt?-loren?, Z. Changtai?, and . Xiaodong?, Growth and Structural Transformation in China? "In China's Great Economic Transformation? Edited by, Zbigniew, 1962.

J. Cabestan, Demain la Chine: démocratie ou dictature?, Gallimard, 2019.

C. W. Calomiris, Y. Raymond-fisman, and . Wang, Profiting from government stakes in a command economy: Evidence from Chinese asset sales, Journal of Financial Economics, vol.96, pp.399-412, 2010.

J. Chen and B. J. Dickson, Busting the "Princelings": The campaign against corruption in China's primary land market, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.134, pp.185-226, 2010.

H. Ding and H. He, A tale of transition: An empirical analysis of income, 2018.

R. Dahrendorf, Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society, 1959.

B. J. Dickson, Red capitalists in China: the party, private entrepreneurs, and prospects for political change, 2003.

G. Eyal, I. Szelényi, and E. Townsley, Making Capitalism without Capitalists: Class Formation and Elite Struggles in Post-Communist Central Europe, 1998.

J. P. Fan, T. Tak-jun-wong, and . Zhang, Politically connected CEOs, corporate governance, and Post-IPO performance of China's newly partially privatized firms, Journal of financial economics, vol.84, pp.330-357, 2007.

R. Fisman, J. Shi, Y. Wang, and W. Wu, Social Ties and the Selection of China's Political Elite, Class in Contemporary China, 2014.

D. Guo, K. Jiang, B. Kim, and C. Xu, Political economy of private firms in China, Journal of Comparative Economics, vol.42, issue.2, pp.286-303, 2014.

D. Harvey, Continuities and discontinuities in elite theory, John, pp.25-39, 2007.

Y. Huang, Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics: Entrepreneurship and the State, 2008.

A. Inkeles, Social Stratification and the Modernization of Russia, pp.338-50, 1960.

, The Transformation of Russian Society

H. Kaelble, Historical research on social mobility: Western Europe and the USA in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, 1981.

P. Landry and . Francois, Decentralized Authoritarianism in China: the Communist Party's control of local elites in the post-Mao era, 2008.

C. Li, Chinese politics in the Xi Jinping era: Reassessing collective leadership, 2016.

C. Li, The Political Elite in China: A Dynamic Balance Between Integration and Differentiation, pp.295-314, 2018.

H. Li, L. Meng, Q. Wang, and L. Zhou, Political connections, financing and firm performance: Evidence from Chinese private firms, Journal of Development Economics, vol.87, issue.2, pp.283-299, 2008.

S. Li, C. Luo, Z. Wei, and X. Yue, Appendix: The 1995 and 2002 Household Surveys: Sampling Methods and Data Description, Proletarianizing Urban China: The Changing Class Structure and Social Inequality, vol.14, pp.101-153, 1979.

. Lin?thung-hong, Social Classes in China: An Analysis of China's Transition to Capitalism"? PhD dissertation? Hong Kong University of Science, pp.81-112, 1978.

?. Liu-xin and . ?????, , 2007.

, Class Structure of Urban and Positioning of Middle-Class in China, Sociological Studies, vol.6

L. Xueyi and ?. ??, , 2002.

?. ??, Social Sciences Academic Press? Lu Xueyi ??????, 2004.

?. Beijing and ;. ??, , 2010.

L. Thung, -. Hong, and W. ???????, ??????????? ?????????:1978-2005? ????? 30 ??? 1-30 ?? [Institutional Changes? Class-Structure Transformation?and Income Inequality in, 2005.

R. Jia, M. Kudamatsu, and D. Seim, Political selection in China: The complementary roles of connections and performance, Journal of the European Economic Association, vol.13, pp.631-668, 2015.

R. Kanbur and X. Zhang, The Great Chinese Inequality Turnaround, 2018.

G. Konrad and I. Szelényi, Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power, 1978.

J. Kung, C. Kai-sing, and . Ma, Friends with benefits: How political connections help to sustain private enterprise growth in China, Economica, vol.85, pp.41-74, 2018.

M. Matthews, Privilege in the Soviet Union, 1978.

. Moore and J. Barrington, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union: 1928-1944. A Study in Elite Formation and Function, American Sociological Review, vol.9, pp.267-78, 1944.

B. Milanovic, Liberalization and Entrepreneurship,: Dynamics of Reform in Socialism and Capitalism, 1989.

B. Milanovic, , 2019.

M. Pei, China's trapped transition: the limits of developmental autocracy, 2006.

P. Persson and E. Zhuravskaya, The limits of career concerns in federalism: evidence from China, Journal of the European Economic Association, vol.14, issue.2, pp.338-374, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01313799

T. Piketty, L. Yang, and G. Zucman, Capital Accumulation, Private Property and Rising Inequality in China, 1978.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02301313

K. Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time, 1944.

S. Mclaughlin and J. , Does Communist Party Membership Pay? Estimating the Economic Returns to Party Membership in the Labor Market in China, Journal of Comparative Economics, vol.45, issue.5, 2017.

I. Szelényi, The Prospects and Limits of the East European New Class Project: An Auto-Critical Reflection on The Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power, Politics and Society, vol.15, pp.103-147, 1986.

L. Trotsky, The Revolution Betrayed: What is the Soviet Union and where is it going? Reprint, pp.Double-day, 1937.

A. G. Walder, Career mobility and the communist political order, American Sociological Review, pp.309-328, 1995.

A. G. Walder, B. Li, and D. J. Treisman, Politics and life chances in a state socialist regime: Dual career paths into the urban Chinese elite, American Sociological Review, pp.191-209, 1949.

G. T. Wodtke, Social class and income inequality in the United States, 2016.

, American Journal of Sociology, vol.121, issue.5, pp.1375-1415, 1980.

E. O. Wright, Class Structure and Income Determination, 1979.

X. Wu and J. Perloff, China's income distribution and inequality, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.87, issue.4, pp.763-775, 2005.

Y. Xie and X. Zhou, Income inequality in today's China, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014.

J. Zhuang and L. Shi, Understanding Recent Trends in Income Inequality in the People's Republic of China, ADB Economics Working Paper Series, issue.489, 2016.

X. Wu and J. Perloff, China's income distribution and inequality, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.87, issue.4, pp.763-775, 2005.