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The mark of a criminal record, American Journal of Sociology, vol.108, issue.5, pp.937-975, 2003. ,
Prison as a Criminal School: Peer Effects and Criminal Learning behind Bars, The Journal of Law and Economics, vol.63, issue.1, pp.149-180, 2020. ,
Clicking on heaven's door: The effect of immigrant legalization on crime, American Economic Review, vol.107, issue.1, pp.138-68, 2017. ,
Scandinavian exceptionalism in an era of penal excess part I: the nature and roots of scandinavian exceptionalism, British Journal of Criminology, vol.48, issue.2, pp.119-137, 2008. ,
Mr. Larsson is walking out again'. The origins and development of Scandinavian prison systems, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, vol.44, issue.1, pp.7-23, 2011. ,
The New Scarlet Letter? Negotiating the U.S. Labor Market with a Criminal Record, 2014. ,
Breaking Bad: Mechanisms of Social Influence and the Path to Criminality in Juvenile Jails, The Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.99, issue.5, pp.824-838, 2017. ,
The psychology of trial judging, Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol.20, issue.1, pp.58-62, 2011. ,
Alcohol-related road casualties in official crash statistics, International Transport Forum ITF, 2017. ,
, World Prison Population List, 2018.
, , 2013.
, Incarceration within American and Nordic prisons: Comparison of national and international policies, The International Journal of Research and Practice on Student Engagement, vol.1, issue.1, pp.36-47
, The administrative registers used as part of this project are the following ones, 2019.
, These crime and charge codes are recorded by the police using a detailed 7-digit hierarchical code (1,161 codes) -the last three digits often indicating the severity of the crime. For instance, 60 different codes can be used to categorize drunk-driving crimes and charges